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Currently submitted to: JMIR Research Protocols

Date Submitted: Apr 1, 2020
Open Peer Review Period: Apr 1, 2020 - May 14, 2020
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Digital Mental Health Resources for CALD Populations: Scoping Review Protocol

  • Buaphrao Raphiphatthana; 
  • Herdiyan Maulana; 
  • Timothy Howarth; 
  • Karen Gardner; 
  • Tricia Nagel; 



People from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (CALD) experience a number of risk factors for mental health problems. However, in comparison to the host population, CALD populations are less likely to use mental health services. Digital mental health approaches have been shown to be effective in improving wellbeing for the general population; thus, they may provide an effective and culturally appropriate strategy to bridge the treatment gap for CALD populations.


The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of the available digital mental health (dMH) resources for CALD populations. Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions: what are the available dMH resources for CALD populations? Are they effective, cost-efficient, feasible, appropriate, and accepted by the population? What are the knowledge gaps in the field?


The methodology will follow the five phases outlined by Arksey and O’Malley (2005) which include: identifying the research question, identifying relevant studies, study selection, charting the data, collating summarizing and reporting the results. Searches were conducted in the following databases: EBSCOhost databases (CINAHL Plus with Full text, MEDLINE with full text, APA PsychArticles, Psychology and Behavioural sciences collection, APA PsychInfo), PubMed, and Scopus. Additionally, OpenGrey, Wonder, Mednar, and Eldis will be searched for grey literature. All primary studies and grey literature in English that include the use of information and communication technology to deliver services targeting mental health issues for CALD populations will be included.


Data relating to effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability will be extracted and included for analysis.


To date, there are no scoping reviews which have assessed the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness of the available digital mental health resources for CALD populations. This review will provide extensive coverage on a promising and innovative intervention for this vulnerable population. It will give insight into the range of approaches, their effectiveness, and progress in their implementation, and provide valuable information for health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers working with CALD populations.


Please cite as:

Raphiphatthana B, Maulana H, Howarth T, Gardner K, Nagel T

Digital Mental Health Resources for CALD Populations: Scoping Review Protocol

JMIR Preprints. 01/04/2020:19031

DOI: 10.2196/preprints.19031


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